31 December 2008

Hortatory Exposition

A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of Hortatory exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Recommendation.

A.Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition
1. Thesis : Statement or announcement of issue concern
2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation
3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments

B.Generic Features

1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self.
2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.
3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.
5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.


Now read this text!

A Campaign of the Importance of Reading

Thesis:

Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people haven’t realized the importance of reading

Argument 1

Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows the world. He or she will understand what he doesn’t see by himself or herself. The lines of the paragraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improve the quality of human’s life. Technology transformation from other country can only be done by reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstores mean nothing if they are not read.

Argument 2

Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we know that something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try to get or do the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information or news, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make a transaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or reading and they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks, people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge and inspiration.

Argument 3

A good understanding toward the importance of reading can be achieved by well organized and effective campaign. To plant an understanding in a generation’s minds is not an easy job. It needs a hard work from all components of the nation, especially the government. A serious campaign which is organized by the central and local government can help common people wake up and stand to face the real competition. The campaign can be done through various kinds of mass media such as TV, radio, booklets, bulletins, newspapers, magazines. It can also be conducted by teachers, parents and all people who care.

Recommendation

Therefore, a nation-wide effective campaign of the importance of reading by all components of the nation should be done, facilitated by the government, to face the tighter competition. The world has forced globalization. Those people with little knowledge will be left behind. To speed up the better change in this country, a good reading habit is really important.
Written by Cahyono KD



Read this text of Hortatory exposition!

Corruption
Thesis
(Announcement of issue concern)

Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia.

Argument 1

The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials.

Argument 2

Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption.

Recommendation
I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction.
Adapted from: The Jakarta Post, February 2005


To make it clear, please remember the concept of Hortatory exposition below:

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Purpose : to persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case.

Text Organization
A thesis
Arguments
Recommendation

Language Features:
•The use of emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc)
•The use of words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, probably etc)
•The use of words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc)
•The use of compound and complex sentence
•The use of modals and adverbs (e.g. may, must, should, etc)
•The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we

Sources:
Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung

Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Descriptive

What is Description text?

Descriptions are the texts which are used to describe about a particular place, person or thing. Descriptions are almost the same as report text. A descriptive text focuses on a specific thing and its specific features. A report usually deals with things in general. Descriptions can be used in textbook, encyclopedias, scientific magazines, historical texts, factual reading book, magazines etc

A. Generic Structure of Description

1. Identification : identifies the phenomenon to be described
2. Description of Features : describes features in order of importance

• Parts/ things, it is about physical appearance
• Qualities, it can be the degree of beauty, excellence, value or worth
• Characteristic, it can be prominent aspects that are unique


NOTES:

1. Difference between descriptions and reports can be seen as follow: descriptive texts talk about one specific person, place or thing, e.g. “My Car” and reports classify and describe a whole class of thing, e.g. “Cars” (in general). In short, reports deal with general classification and description of thing while descriptive texts describe a particular thing.

2.The description can cover the facts about various aspects of an object (parts, colour, shape, habits, behaviour, personalities etc

B.Generic Features of Description

1.Descriptive texts usually use Simple Present Tense
2.Frequent use of Passive sentences.
3.Use of be (is, am, are, was, were) for the identification and showing qualities
4.Use of verb “Have” (have, has, had) in order to give detail description of the object’s features.
5.Use of action verbs related to the topic, especially when describing behaviours or personalities (for persons)
6.Use of adjectives in describing especially the qualities.


Now read these texts!

Lesser Slow Loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus)
Identification:

The Lesser Slow Loris is a Mammal which can clampo onto branches for long period of time. To help it do this, the Loris has a network of blood vessels, called rate mirabile in its forearms and shanks.



Description of physical features:

It is a small mammal which is 7-10 in long (175-250 mm) and can weigh as musch as 12 ounces or 340 grams. Being nocturnal the Loris has large round eyes. The Loris has no tail but has broad grasping feet. On its second toe it has a sharp claw. It also has an enlarge thumb and a reduced index finger.
The Lesser Slow Loris is a plump animal with soft, thick fur ranging in color from light brown-grey to deep reddish-brown with a dark stripe down the back and neck. It has a long snout with comb like front teeth which are used in grooming.
Description of habitat, floor and behaviour It is found in Southern Asia, Vietnam, Borneo and Sumatra. As it is tree-living, it is restricted to tropical rain forest. The diet of the Loris is made up fruit and leaves, tender shoots, insect, birds, small mammals and reptiles. It is nocturnal and sleeps by day rolled up in a ball.

Description of interesting features:

The Loris is a solitary animal which belongs to the family of Lorisidea bush baby and potto. It is very slow but deliberate climber. An interesting fact about the Lesser Slow Loris is that it has a single-note whistle.

Read This Text !
Around Bali
Identification:

Bali, the fabled “Island of the Gods” has been enchanting visitors for centuries with its rich cultural traditions and spectacular panoramas.

description:

Bali offers many things, from lofty, mist enshrouded volcanoes and cool mountain lakes down through terraced rice fields to a golden strand lapped by azure waters, every square inch of Bali offers a fresh and unforgettable image.

description:

No less enchanting are its people. Some 2,7 million souls whose artistry and piety are recognized throughout the world. Balinese Hinduism, a complex fusion of Indian cosmology, Tantric Buddism and homegrown mythology, is the primary faith of Bali’s inhabitants, and so deeply woven into the fabric of their daily lives that the line between the spiritual and the material is blurry at best.

Sources
Aswandi and Fauriz Zuchri. 2008. Reading and Writing: Modul Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru. Universitas Negeri Surabaya
Nugrahani, Arifiyati and Fernando. 2006. Learning to Use English 2: An English Course for SMA and MA Students Year 2. Jakarta: PT Piranti Darma Kalokatama

19 December 2008

Analytical Exposition

An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion.

A.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position;
Outlines of the arguments are presented.
2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration
Point, states the main argument
Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument
3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position

B. Generic Features
  1. An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants.
  2. It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.
  3. It uses emotive and evaluative words
  4. It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
  5. It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.
  6. Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.

Now look the sample of analytical exposition below!

Corruption and Indonesian Culture
Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons

Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere

The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it?

The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corrupting country in the world.
conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country?
Written by Cahyono


More information:
  1. Emotive language adds strong description to the facts and so help to create an extremely subjective tone of the text. It plays a role in persuading the readers toward the writer’s opinion e.g. Most adult Indonesian,
  2. Evaluative language is another way to persuade people agree with the writer’s opinion e.g. This is the worst, It’s true, It’s important, It’s clear, I believe, It is obvious that etc.

Read the following text!

The Importance of English

Thesis { I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say that?


Argument 1 { Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all around the world, either as a first or second language.


Argument 2 { Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world.

Argument 3 { Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who do not.

Conclusion { From the fact above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era.

Notes:
  1. Enumerations such as Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc are sometimes given to show the list of given arguments
  2. Present Tense: I think, English is international language, Everybody needs to learn English etc.


To make clear understand these notes:

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Purpose : to persuade by presenting arguments
to analyze or explain ‘how’ and ‘why’
Text Organization : A thesis
Arguments
Reiteration or Conclusion
Language Features : Emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc)
Words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, Probably etc)
Words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc)

Sources:
Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung

Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

16 December 2008

The Importance of Reading

Reading is an essential skill that is needed by students to succeed in every subject. Studies have also shown a strong link between reading and superior achievement in writing. With this in mind, part of Jakarta International School's English One's curriculum involves independent reading. During the school year, the students share both oral and visual book presentations with their peers.
One of the requirements for all of the ninth-graders is that they write a book review and place it on our Reader's Corner database. The database provides an excellent source of appropriate and popular books suggestions for other JIS students. While searching for a book to read, the students have many access points: genre, themes, title or author. This is a collaborative project that involves the English teacher, librarian and student. As the American author and journalist Margaret Fuller so amply states, ""Today a reader, tomorrow a leader.""

Dianne Ritz-Salminen High School Librarian at JIS
Sanjeevani Bandara
English One Teacher at JIS Jill Doughty
English One Teacher at JIS

The Importance of Reading

The importance of reading
Getting students to read their textbooks is hard. Getting them to read books just for the sheer pleasure of reading is especially harder since kids just don’t seem to be interested in reading these days. Gone are the days when kids curled up with a nice little book when it was too hot to play outside. Today, students spend any free time they have watching TV, going to the mall, tinkering with their mobile phones or playing video games.Still, the many benefits your students could reap from reading regularly should make the challenge of making them read a small price to pay. Consider the following:
• Reading develops a person’s creativity. Unlike movies where everything is determined by the producer, writer and director, books allow students to create in their minds how a particular character looks like or imagine how a scene plays out. Reading a book therefore, allows a student to exercise and cultivate her/his creative thinking skills.
• Developing good reading skills can improve your students’ ability to comprehend concepts and ideas.
• Reading develops critical thinking, thus, ensuring that your students will be able to think and make good decisions for themselves.
• Ones’ fluency in a language and, consequently, communication skills are improved by reading.
• Reading introduces your students to new things and has the ability to broaden their interests. A student who reads a biography of Albert Einstein for example, may be inspired to take his high school Physics class more seriously.
• Reading regularly increases the vocabulary.
• Reading can develop positive values in your students. According to a study conducted in the United States for example, students who learn to read by the time they are in third grade are less likely to take drugs, drop out of school or end up in prison.
• One of the main problems of today’s students is their inability to concentrate on their lessons (a result of their shortening attention span.) A solution to this problem is to encourage students to read. According to studies, reading increases a student’s ability to concentrate.
• Developing your students’ reading and comprehension skills early on in their education also means that you are preparing them for the “real world.” Being able to read well means that they would have no problem understanding manuals, guides or contracts - vital documents and papers they will surely encounter when they join the work force.
• Spelling improves when words are seen in print.
• Reading also improves your students’ writing skills as they are able to “subconsciously acquire good writing style.
The fact that students reap great benefits from reading cannot be doubted or questioned. It is for this reason that teachers must instill in students a real love for reading and groom them into becoming lifelong readers.
Adapted from:

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