19 December 2008

Analytical Exposition

An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion.

A.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position;
Outlines of the arguments are presented.
2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration
Point, states the main argument
Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument
3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position

B. Generic Features
  1. An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants.
  2. It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc.
  3. It uses emotive and evaluative words
  4. It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
  5. It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense.
  6. Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.

Now look the sample of analytical exposition below!

Corruption and Indonesian Culture
Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons

Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere

The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it?

The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corrupting country in the world.
conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country?
Written by Cahyono


More information:
  1. Emotive language adds strong description to the facts and so help to create an extremely subjective tone of the text. It plays a role in persuading the readers toward the writer’s opinion e.g. Most adult Indonesian,
  2. Evaluative language is another way to persuade people agree with the writer’s opinion e.g. This is the worst, It’s true, It’s important, It’s clear, I believe, It is obvious that etc.

Read the following text!

The Importance of English

Thesis { I personally think that English is the world’s most important language. Why do I say that?


Argument 1 { Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all around the world, either as a first or second language.


Argument 2 { Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world.

Argument 3 { Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who do not.

Conclusion { From the fact above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era.

Notes:
  1. Enumerations such as Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc are sometimes given to show the list of given arguments
  2. Present Tense: I think, English is international language, Everybody needs to learn English etc.


To make clear understand these notes:

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION

Purpose : to persuade by presenting arguments
to analyze or explain ‘how’ and ‘why’
Text Organization : A thesis
Arguments
Reiteration or Conclusion
Language Features : Emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc)
Words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, Probably etc)
Words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc)

Sources:
Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung

Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

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